Wednesday, 3 July 2013

Best 4G Long Term Evolution technology in india

4G Long Term Evolution (LTE) technology is often touted as the magic bullet for operators worldwide to address the increase in data traffic on their capacity constrained mobile networks.

 As new technology the LTE promises significant advantages over the current 3G technology such as higher spectral efficiency, lower cost of data transmission, faster speeds and lower latencies. However, as with any new technology, there are several challenges ahead for global operators in deploying 4G LTE networks.

 So what are these challenges? Fragmentation of LTE Spectrum and impact on number of site The key feature of LTE(OFDMA) to handle multipath propagation without complex receivers but high variations in the amplitude of signals reduces the efficiency of transmitter power amplifier, warranting high quality of installation and accuracy .

The majority of the spectrum allocation is in 2.6GHZ in large part of the world which is required to be harmonized . According to study in different countries, the biggest single problem faced by operators is the range of spectrum bands to support.  The fragmentation is worse in other countries such as the USA, where within the same geography, telcos operate on different frequencies. Verizon and AT&T use the 700MHz band for their LTE networks while Sprint is using 1900MHz and 800MHz spectrum. 

A lower spectrum band (e.g. 1800MHz) provides better indoor signal strength and travels further compared to one of a higher spectrum band (e.g. 2600MHz). However, the higher spectrum bands are better suited for covering densely-populated areas and managing heavy data volumes due to their larger bandwidth.

The lower frequency spectrums are more affordable to build and signals travel further, whereas higher frequency spectrums require a lot of base stations to cover a similar distance. This could very well be another possible reason why different telcos around the world use different spectrum bands, besides the obvious fact that they are also limited by the availability of these bands.

 2) Building a new and interworking with current network Another challenge is how operators build up the network. Some carriers like to will build a completely new 4G network along the existing networks.

Other telcos will create a converged network, where they try to make the different generations of technologies work together. In both cases, the process is highly complex and cost intensive. The transition to 4G network will require new radio access technology and core network expansion, while maintaining existing 2G/3G networks alongside the new 4G network will result in additional burden on telcos. 

 3) New IP transmission al IP architecture Need to create high capacity IP core network to connect MME(mobility management entity) ,S-GW,P-GW.EPC core network is to be dimensioned for high throughput and low latency for RAN. All the interworking nodes including non3GPP systems is to be re-dimensioned. There is a need to reduce Round trip delay which requires the operator to look into its legacy IP network

 4) Impact on Transmission and radio access network While IMS is recommended by 3GPP,the lack of
maturity and proven deployment in large scale is a big challenge in deployment of IMS operator .On transmission side the major area concerned will be: Operator SDH/IP strategy swap plan. Impact on existing network& conversion on IP transport network.Economic use of backhaul capacity

 5) Return on Investment (ROI) on 4G LTE As mentioned earlier, the migration to LTE or upgrading of existing mobile networks will incur high costs. Moreover, 4G LTE is expected to disrupt the traditional business models of telcos: voice calls and SMS.

 6) Tiered Data Plans To justify the investments in the new 4G networks, telcos have to change their data price models. First, telcos can charge higher prices for their LTE offerings compared to their existing mobile data plans and maintain a higher quality of service to justify the higher premiums. Second, . They should implement "pay-for-what-you-use" pricing models, where consumers are charged based on their usage behaviours. Third, Guaranteed speed, telcos can adopt a value-based pricing model where consumers can pay a premium for a better experience.

 7) True 4G Global Roaming - Fiction more than Reality Due to the lack of harmonization of LTE spectrum bands across different countries, it is almost impossible within the near future to support LTE global roaming. To use a LTE device for data roaming, based on the current worldwide spectrum usage, Wright said that the device needs to support at least 15 bands. From an engineering perspective, supporting so many bands on a device is really tough.

Therefore, Wright believes that for the next decade, 3G data roaming will still be dominant. CONCLUSION In reality it comes out to be that multi technology hybrid complex network will exists in future and will continue for some time, the operator has to have a multitude of technologies and resources to manage the operations.

 LTE will be rolled out in the phases which will lead from 200mhz to 2000mhz bandwidth implementation in due course of time to give the consistent time upgradable high capacity technological advantage and sustainability to deliver a seem less service experience operator have to interwork a strategy to manage the technology and network resources for providing end to end service assurance across multiple domain of the network.

Best GSM technology training in india

GSM, word for the very first time used in 1982 and termed as ‘Groupe Speciale Mobile’ under the umbrella of ‘Conference Europeenne Des Postes et Telecommunication’. In a course of time, CEPT evolved into new organization, ETSI (European Telecommunication Standard Institute).

GSM TECHNOLOGY is totally based on 2G TDMA &FDMA, Digital Communication. In 1991, the first derivative of GSM i.e. Digital Cellular System1800 has been introduced which uses the band of 1800MHZ (In some countries also adopted for 1900MHZ).

To overcome various Disadvantages of 1G like low data transmission rate, no security against wireless frauds, voice in analog form, this 2G technology has been introduced.

GSM provides increased capacity, audio Quality, improved security and confidentiality, cleaner handovers, enhanced range of services.

Initially only insiders believed such a success would be possible but later various manufacturers and network operators like CDMA, PHS (PERSONAL HANDY PHONE SYSTEM), DECT (DIGITAL ENHANCED CORDLESS TELECOMMUNICATION) tried to mimic the success of GSM.

MS(mobile station), SIM(subscriber identity module),BTS(base transceiver station),BSC(base station controller),TRAU(transcoding rate and adaptation unit),MSC(mobile switching Centre), HLR (home location register), VLR (visitor location register), EIR (equipment identity register)

1) Frequency Reuse Concept- defines reusing the same frequency within a geographic area

2) Handover-defines to retain the connection while moving from one cell to another to avoid call

dropped. 3) GSM Frequencies-digital communication uses band of 900/1800 MHZ to communicate.

GSM TECHNOLOGY TRAINING Provides the participant with a broad and clear understanding of the GSM system. It also acts as a base for other studies in radio and wireless systems architectures and applications. This training is designed for strategic or technical managers, consultants, communications professionals, software engineers, system engineers, Sees, network professionals, marketing and sales professional, IT professionals, and others who plan on using, evaluating or working with GSM Technology.

GSM TECHNOLOGY TRAINING curriculum, focused on the important GSM family of technologies, includes the dominant 2G wireless technology, as well as GPRS and EDGE (or EGPRS), the 2.5G/2.75G enhancements that enable packet switching in the mobile communications environment.


Drive Test is the procedure to perform a test while driving. The vehicle does not really matter. What matters is the hardware and software used in the test. Drive test kit includes:

A notebook - or other similar device

with collecting Software installed

a Security Key - Dongle - common to these types of software

at least one Mobile Phone

one GPS

and a Scanner – optional

NEED: with the help of this drive test procedure, we check the performance of network in outdoor as well as in door areas


RF PLANNING & OPTIMIZATION basically includes:


Why Optimization?

Inaccuracy of radio planning
- Statistical variations in the path loss
- Finite terrain database resolution
- Antenna radiation pattern and effective radiated power
- Antenna pattern distortion
- Seasonal environmental changes, e.g. trees, leaves
- Environmental changes such as new highways, new buildings

ASP.NET Development Company India

It provides a large number of data types, interfaces and classes for development of Windows applications and services.

These libraries have been designed to replace older technologies, including the Microsoft Foundation Classes (MFC) and Active Template Library (ALT) for Visual C++, the Component Object Model (COM) and the ActiveX model used by all languages, and also the Win32 API which is the core of Windows programming concepts. 

While the ASP.NET Development Company India must obviously still use various technologies like the Win32 API and COM, it hides the complex details away from the programmer and can make developing applications for Windows a much easier task. In addition, since all ASP.NET Development Company India use the exact same set of classes, interfaces and data types, moving from one .NET language to another is much simpler.

Here is a brief explanation of the terms.


Classes are code that implements a set of features and can be used directly by the developer. In many cases a class is an implementation of one or more interfaces. Classes in the .NET Framework also support the use of inheritance, so one class can derive from another and add (or override) features from the base class.


A namespace is a collection of classes, enumerations and delegates under a single name. This provides organization to the entire framework and also allows the name name to be used again in different namespaces, without conflicts. The same concept is used in C++ namespaces, Java packages and XML namespaces. Generally, a ASP.NET Development Company India namespace is contained within a single Assembly (.DLL or .EXE).


An enumeration is a simple list of constant values with names assigned.

Generally it is easier for programmers to remember symbolic names than to remember a long list of number values.


A delegate is a special class used to implement callbacks into your source code. Basically, you are declaring that when some event occurs, you would like the.  ASP.NET Development Company India to call a method in your application. The handle to the method will be stored in a delegate class, which can possible have several methods listed which can be called in sequence. Delegate classes can be used for traditional event notifications as well as callbacks.
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An event is triggered whenever the .NET Framework has detected a change in status that you may be interested in. Events are similar to standard Windows messages


An assembly is made up of one or more compiled source code units that are grouped together into a single unit. Each assembly file also includes an assembly manifest, which is meta information that describes the assembly's name, version and dependencies to other assemblies.

 Assemblies can have either a .DLL or .EXE extension. In general, a .DLL assembly provides classes and services that can be used by other assemblies, while .EXE assemblies are equivalent to an application and will make use of other assemblies.

The meta information is a large part of ability of the .NET Framework to avoid the symptom sometimes called DLL hell. 

The .NET Framework installs its assemblies under the Windows system folder. Applications are free to use assemblies from this global catalog, or to install assemblies in their own application folder. In that case, .NET will use the application provided assemblies instead of the system assemblies. This allows you to ship versions of assemblies that you know work with your application and avoid problems when users upgrade the system assemblies.

Major Namespaces in the .NET Framework


Contains classes that support compilation and code generation using the C# language.


Contains the Visual Basic .NET runtime. This runtime is used with the Visual Basic .NET language. This namespace also contains classes that support compilation and code generation using the Visual Basic .NET language.


Contains the JScript runtime and classes that support compilation and code generation using the JScript language.


Contains interfaces that allow you to integrate script for the ASP.NET Development Company India engines into applications, and to compile and execute code at run time.